作者:[美] 彼得·格雷

中文题目:自主教育和激进教育之间的区别

Differences Between Self-Directed and Progressive Education
(Section 5)

(18)Progressive educators often cite Rousseau as an early proponent of their views. Rousseau’s sole work on education was his book émile, first published in 1760, which is a fictional account of the education of a single boy. If this book has any real-world application at all it would be to the education of a prince. émile’s teacher is a tutor, whose sole job, sole mission in life, is the education of this one boy, a teacher-student ratio of one to one. The tutor, by Rousseau’s description, is a sort of superhero. He is not only extraordinarily knowledgeable in all subjects, but he understands émile inside and out, more so than it is ever possible (I would say) for any actual human being to understand another human being. He knows all of the boy’s desires, at any given time, and he knows exactly what stimuli to provide at any time to maximize the educational benefits that will accrue from the boy’s acting on those desires. Thus, the tutor creates an environment in which émile is always doing just what he wants to do, yet is learning precisely the lessons that the tutor has masterfully laid out for him.

(19)I think if more educators actually read émile, rather than just referred to it, they would recognize the basic flaw in progressive educational theory. It is way too demanding of teachers to be practical on any sort of mass scale, and it makes unrealistic assumptions about the predictability and visibility of human desires and motives. [For more on my analysis of émile, see here.] At best, on a mass scale, progressive education can simply help to modulate the harshness of traditional methods and add a bit of self-direction and creativity to students’ lives in school.

(20)In contrast to progressive education, Self-Directed Education is inexpensive and efficient. The Sudbury Valley School, for example, which is approaching its 50th anniversary, operates on a per student budget less than half that of the local public schools (for more on this school, see here and here). A large ratio of adults to students is not needed, because most student learning does not come from interaction with adults. In this age-mixed setting, younger students are continuously learning from older ones, and children of all ages practice essential skills and try out ideas in their play, exploration, conversations, and pursuits of whatever interests they develop. They also, on their own initiative, use books and, in today’s world, Internet resources to acquire the knowledge they are seeking at any given time.

(21)The usual criticism of Self-Directed Education is that it can’t work, or can work only for certain, highly self-motivated people. In fact, progressive educators are often quick to draw a distinction between their view of education and that of Self-Directed Education, because they don’t want their view to be confused with ideas that they consider to be “romantic” or “crazy” and unworkable. For example, I’m pretty sure that Alfie Kohn had Self-Directed Education in mind when he wrote (here again): “In this cartoon version of the tradition, kids are free to do anything they please, the curriculum can consist of whatever is fun (and nothing that isn’t fun). Learning is thought to happen automatically while the teachers just stand by, observing and beaming. I lack the space here to offer examples of this sort of misrepresentation — or a full account of why it’s so profoundly wrong — but trust me: People really do sneer at the idea of progressive education based on an image that has little to do with progressive education.”

One thought on “Differences Between Self-Directed and Progressive Education (5)”

  1. Tuesday, 03 November 2020 11:09

     

    (18)进步的教育家经常把卢梭作为他们观点早期的支持者。卢梭关于教育的唯一著作是他的《爱弥儿》,该书首次出版于1760年,是一个虚构的关于一个男孩受教育的故事。如果这本书对现实世界有任何应用的话,那就是对王子的教育,埃米尔的老师是一个家庭教师,他唯一的工作,唯一的人生使命,就是教育这个男孩,是一个1:1的师生比例,按照卢梭的描述,导师是一个超级英雄。他不仅在所有学科上都非常博学,而且他对《爱弥尔》的理解是里里外外的,比任何一个真实的人都更能理解另一个人。他知道男孩在任何特定时间的所有欲望,也确切的知道在任何时候应该提供什么刺激,以使男孩按照这些欲望行事所产生的教育效益达到最大化。因此导师创造了一种环境,在这种环境中,埃米尔总是在做他想做的事,同事也在学习导师为他精心准备的课程。

     

    (19)我想,如果更多的教育工作者真正阅读《爱弥尔》,而不是仅仅知道它。他们会认识到进步教育根本的缺陷,它对老师的要求太高了,任何大规模的教教学中都不可能做到切实可行。而且它对人类欲望和动机的可测性和可见性都做了不切实际的假设(想了解更多我对《爱弥尔》的分析,请看这里)在大多数情况下,进步教育充其量只能帮助调整传统教育方法的严厉程度,给学生的学校生活添加一些自我指导和创造力。

     

    (20)与进步教育相反,自传教育成本低且效率低,例如,萨德伯里山谷学校即将成立五十周年,其人均预算不到当地公立学校的一半。不需要大比例的成年人与学生的比例,因为大多数学生的学习不是来自于成年人的互动,在这个与年龄相混的环境中,年轻学生不断向年长的学生学习,所有年龄段的学生都在练习基本技能,并在玩耍,探索,对话和追求他们所发展的任何兴趣时尝试想法。他们还主动使用书籍,并在当今世界使用互联网资源来获取他们在任何特定时间寻求的知识。

     

    (21)通常对自我指导教育的批评是不起作用的,或者只能对肯定的、高度自我激励的人起作用。事实上,进步的教育者往往很快就把他们的教育观点和自我指导教育的观点区分开来,因为他们不希望自己的观点与他们认为是“浪漫的”或“疯狂的”、行不通的观点相混淆。举个例子,我很肯定Alfie Kohn在写下(此处再次提及)“在这个传统的卡通版本中,孩子们可以自由地做他们喜欢做的任何事,课程可以包含任何有趣的内容(没有任何不有趣的内容)。”学习被认为是自动发生的,而老师只是站在一旁,观察和微笑。我没有空来提供这种歪曲的例子——或一个完整的证据证明为什么它是如此大错特错,但相信我:人们真的会嘲笑这种印象基于不为积极教育做什么的想法。

     

     

    第18段由康雨蓉同学翻译;第19段由丁乙同学翻译;第20段由韩毅同学翻译;第21段由王春赟同学翻译。指导:李燕老师。 

召集中…

─────────────────────────

☆☆☆☆☆  急召:

翻译、摄影爱好者,无论段位。

─────────────────────────

☆☆☆ 共建者:

对非主流教育有兴趣做研究的年青人;

对自主学习的实践有经验的大、小朋友;

愿意和大家分享的自己知识和见解的;

希望参与共学社会建设的搞事情的人。