作者:[美] 彼得·格雷

中文题目:自主教育和激进教育之间的区别

Differences Between Self-Directed and Progressive Education
(Section 4)

Why I Think Self-Directed Education, Not Progressive Education, Will Become the Standard Mode of Future Education

(14)I admire progressive educators. Without exception, those I have met are good people, who care deeply about children and want to make children’s lives better. They see the harm of our standard system of education and want to do something about it. Progressive educators are at the forefront, right now, of attempts to reduce homework (so children will have a life outside of school), bring back recess, reduce or eliminate standardized testing, and allow teachers to be more flexible and responsive to children’s needs in the classroom. They are fighting an uphill battle, and I admire them for it. But this is a battle that has been going on for as long as we have had compulsory schooling. It is a battle that helps to modulate the excesses of standard education; but it is incapable of defeating it, because it accepts too much of the standard set of beliefs about what education must be.

(15)As long as teachers believe that it is their task to make sure that children learn certain things, at certain times in their development, then no matter how progressive their thinking, they will have to use coercive methods to get children to do that. Children do not, by nature, all develop similar interests at the same time, so it is impossible to operate in anything like a typical classroom, with more than a handful of students, on the assumption that all students will learn the expected curriculum by doing what interests them.

(16)I dare say that most new teachers, emerging from schools of education, enter their job thinking they are going to be progressive educators. They went into teaching, after all, because they love children; and in their education classes much if not most of the educational philosophy they read and heard about was progressive philosophy—about guiding, nurturing, and enabling, not about coercing. But then they entered the real world of the classroom. There they had thirty children, and had to keep order, and had to do something to make it seem like learning was going on; and their progressive ideas soon flew out the window. It’s no surprise that those schools that do operate in most accord with progressive principles are private and very expensive. They require small classes, a high ratio of teachers to students, and extraordinarily competent, dedicated teachers.

(17)Even ardent advocates of progressive education admit that one of the reasons progressive education has not taken off is that it is so demanding of teachers. Here, for example, is what Alfie Kohn has to say about that: “It [progressive education] is much more demanding [than traditional education] of teachers, who have to know their subject matter inside and out if they want their students to ‘make sense of biology or literature’ as opposed to ‘simply memorizing the frog’s anatomy or the sentence’s structure.’ But progressive teachers also have to know a lot about pedagogy because no amount of content knowledge (say, expertise in science or English) can tell you how to facilitate learning.” Add to that the idea that teachers are supposed to get to know all of their students as individuals and help them develop their full potential and their own interests, and you can perhaps begin to understand why progressive education has not replaced direct, drill-and-test education as the standard method.

One thought on “Differences Between Self-Directed and Progressive Education (4)”

  1. Tuesday, 03 November 2020 11:30

     

    为什么我认为自主教育将成为未来教育的标准模式,而进步教育成为不了。

     

    (14)我钦佩进步的教育家。我遇到的这些人都是好人,他们都非常关心孩子们,都想让孩子们的生活变得更好。他们看到了我们标准教育体系的危害,想要为此做些什么。进步的教育工作者现在正站在减少家庭作业(这样孩子们就可以有一个离开学校的生活),恢复休息时间,减少或取消标准化考试,并允许教师在课堂上更灵活地回应孩子们的需求的最前沿。他们在打一场硬仗,我很钦佩他们。但是,自从我们接受义务教育以来,这场啤酒之争就一直在进行。这是一场有助于调整过度标准教育的战斗;但它无法打败它,因为它接受了太多关于教育必须是什么的标准信念。

     

    (15)只有老师认为他们的任务就是确保孩子们在发展的特定阶段学习特定的东西,那么无论他们的思维有多么进步,他们都必须使用强制的方法让孩子们这样做。从本质上讲,孩子们并不是所有人都在同一时间发展出相似的兴趣,因此,不可能在一个典型的,人数超过几个人的教室里进行操作,而假定所有学生都将通过做他们感兴趣的事情来学习预期的课程。

     

    (16)我敢说,大多数从教育学校毕业的新教师,在进入他们的工作时,都认为自己将成为进步的教育者。毕竟他们从事教育工作,是因为他们热爱孩子,在他们的教育课上他们读到的和听到的大部分教育哲学都是渐进式的哲学-指导,培养和授权,而不是强制。但后来他们进入了真实的课堂。他们有30个孩子,他们必须维持秩序,必须做点什么,使大家觉得他们正在学习。他们的进步思想很快就飞出了窗外。毫不奇怪,那些最符合进步原则的学校都是私立的,而且非常昂贵。高比例的教师和学生,以及非常有能力和敬业的教师。 

     

    (17)即使是进步教育的热心拥护者也承认,进步教育没有腾飞的原因之一是它对教师的要求太高。举个例子,阿尔法科恩是这样说的:“它(进步教育)对老师的要求比传统教育要高得多,老师必须对他们的课程内容了如指掌,如果他们想让学生‘理解生物学或文学’,而不是‘简单地记住青蛙的解剖结构或句子的结构。’但是,进步的教师也必须对教学法有很多了解,因为再多的内容知识(比如科学或英语方面的专业知识)也不能告诉你如何促进学习。”此外,教师应该了解所有学生,帮助他们开发全部的潜能和自己的兴趣,也许你会开始理解为什么进步教育没有直接取代训练和测试的教育作为标准方法。

     

     

    注:第14段由韩同学翻译;第15段由张同学翻译;第16段由吴同学翻译;第17段由张金乔同学翻译。指导:李燕老师。

召集中…

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☆☆☆☆☆  急召:

翻译、摄影爱好者,无论段位。

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☆☆☆ 共建者:

对非主流教育有兴趣做研究的年青人;

对自主学习的实践有经验的大、小朋友;

愿意和大家分享的自己知识和见解的;

希望参与共学社会建设的搞事情的人。