作者:[美] 彼得·格雷

中文题目:自主教育和激进教育之间的区别

Differences Between Self-Directed and Progressive Education
(Section 3)

(10)To the advocate of Self-Directed Education, it is the child’s brilliance, not a teacher’s, that enables excellent education. The job of adults who facilitate Self-Directed Education is less onerous than that of teachers in progressive education. In Self-Directed Education adults do not need to have great knowledge of every subject a student might want to learn, do not have to understand the inner workings of every child’s mind, and do not have to be masters of pedagogy (whatever on earth that might be). Rather, they simply have to be sure that the child is provided with an environment that allows the child’s natural educative instincts to operate effectively. As I have argued elsewhere (here and here), that is an environment in which the child (a) has unlimited time and freedom to play and explore; (b) has access to the most useful tools of the culture; (c) is embedded in a caring community of people who range widely in age and exemplify a wide variety of skills, knowledge, and ideas; and (d) has access to a number of adults who are willing to answer questions (or try to answer them) and provide help when asked. This is the kind of environment that is established at schools or learning centers designed for Self-Directed Education, and it is also the kind of environment that successful unschooling families provide for their children.

(11) Education, in this view, is not a collaboration of student and a teacher; it is entirely the responsibility of the student. While progressive educators continue to see it as their responsibility to ensure that students acquire certain knowledge, skills, and values, and to evaluate students’ progress, facilitators of Self-Directed Education do not see that as their responsibility. While progressive education is on a continuum with traditional education, Self-Directed Education represents a complete break from traditional education.

(12)I wish here to introduce a distinction, which has not been made explicit before (not even in my own writing), between, Self-Directed Education, with capital letters, and self-directed education, without capitals. I propose that Self-Directed Education be used to refer to the education of children, of K-12 school age, whose families have made a deliberate decision that the children will educate themselves by following their own interests, without being subjected to an imposed curriculum, either in or out of school. I propose further that self-directed education, without capitals, be used in a more generic sense to refer to something that every human being is engaged in essentially every waking minute of every day. We are all, constantly, educating ourselves as we pursue our interests, make our living, and strive to solve problems in our daily lives. Most of what any of us know—regardless of how much curriculum-based schooling we have attended—has come from self-directed education.

(13)Those who pursue Self-Directed Education are, in effect, saying that self-directed education (small letters) is so powerful and effective that children don’t need imposed education at all, if they are provided with an environment that optimizes their ability to educate themselves. In fact, many are saying that imposed education interferes with self-directed education by consuming so much of children’s time, turning learning into something unpleasant, and planting in children’s minds the idea that they are not capable of controlling their own education.

One thought on “Differences Between Self-Directed and Progressive Education (3)”

  1. Tuesday, 03 November 2020 11:38

     

    (10)对于自我导向教育的倡导者来说,是孩子的聪明才智,而不是教师的聪明才智,才有了卓越的教育。促进自我指导教育的成年人的工作比进步教育中的教师的工作要轻。在自我指导的教育中,成人不需要对学生想学的每一科都有很好的了解。不必了解每个孩子的内心活动,也不必成为教育学的大师(不管是什么样的人)。相反,他们只需确保为孩子提供一个环境,让孩子的自然教育本能有效的发挥作用。正如我在其他地方所论证的地方,这是一个儿童(a) 有无限的时间和自由去玩耍和探索的环境;( b)能够接触到文化中最有用的工具;(c) 融入了一个由年龄广泛的人组成的关爱社区,他们体现了各种各样的技能、知识和想法;(d)并且能够接触到许多愿意回答问题(或试图回答问题)并且被问到时提供帮助的成年人。这是学校或学习中心为自我指导教育而建立的环境,也是成功的非学校教育家庭为其子女提供的环境。

     

    (11)在这种观念下,教育不是老师和学生的合作,是学生 自己的责任。尽管进步教育者继续把确保学生获得知识和技能和价值观作为自己的责任,但是自我学习观念的教育者不认为这是自己的责任。在进步教育和传统教育是一个联系体。自我教育观念是对传统教育观念的打破。 

     

    (12)我想在这里介绍一种以前(甚至在我自己的书写中)没有明确指出的区别,即自主教育(大写字母)和自主教育(不大写字母)之间的区别。我建议用自我指导教育来指K-12学龄儿童的教育,这些儿童的家庭已经经过深思熟虑决定,让他们按照自己的兴趣进行自我教育,而不受学校内外强加的课程限制。我进一步建议,自我指导教育,不需要资本,可以用更一般化的意义来指每个人每天醒着的每一分钟都在从事的事情。 当我们追求自己的兴趣、谋生和解决日常生活中的问题时,我们都在不断地自我教育。我们中的大多数人——不管我们接受了多少基于课程的教育——都来自于自我指导的教育。 

     

    注:第10段由王城同学翻译;第11,12段由韩思雯同学翻译。指导:李燕老师。

召集中…

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☆☆☆☆☆  急召:

翻译、摄影爱好者,无论段位。

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☆☆☆ 共建者:

对非主流教育有兴趣做研究的年青人;

对自主学习的实践有经验的大、小朋友;

愿意和大家分享的自己知识和见解的;

希望参与共学社会建设的搞事情的人。