作者:[美] 彼得·格雷

中文题目:自主教育和激进教育之间的区别

Differences Between Self-Directed and Progressive Education
(Section 2)

(5)The website of the Progressive Education Network (a nonprofit organization formed in 2009 as part of an attempt to revive progressive education) states, as its mission, that: “Education must (a) amplify students’ voice, agency, conscience, and intellect to create a more equitable, just, and sustainable world; (b) encourage the active participation of students in their learning, in their communities, and in the world; (c) respond to the developmental needs of students, and focus on their social, emotional, intellectual, cognitive, cultural, and physical development; (d) honor and nurture students’ natural curiosity and innate desire to learn, fostering internal motivation and the discovery of passion and purpose; (e) emerge from the interests, experiences, goals, and needs of diverse constituents, fostering empathy, communication and collaboration across difference: and (f) foster respectfully collaborative and critical relationships between students, educators, parents/guardians, and the community.”

(6)Alfie Kohn, one of today’s leading advocates for progressive education, has noted (here) that schools can be rated as more or less progressive to the degree that they are committed to (a) attending to the whole child, not just to academics; (b) community; (c) collaboration; (d) social justice; (e) fostering intrinsic motivation; (f) deep understanding; (g) active learning; and (h) taking kids seriously.

(7)Progressive educators tend to view education as a collaborative endeavor between students and their teacher.  A good deal of initiative comes from the students, but the teacher is responsible to guide that initiative in productive ways. The child’s intrinsic interests play a large role, but the teacher “nurtures” or even “brings out” those interests in the child.  Play is understood to be part of the learning process, but the teacher guides and interprets that play in ways designed to insure certain educative ends.

Self-Directed Education

(8)Advocates of Self-Directed Education, like those of progressive education, emphasize that education is about much more than academic learning.  The website of the Alliance for Self-Directed Education defines education as the sum of everything a person learns that enables that person to live a satisfying and meaningful life.  That would include knowledge of oneself, skills in planning and directing one’s own activities, skills in how to get along well with other people, and an understanding of the world around oneself sufficient to navigate that world effectively.  Most progressive educators would agree, I think, with this kind of definition of education.

(9)The difference between progressive education and Self-Directed Education lies in the understanding of how such whole-person education occurs.  To the progressive educator it emerges from a collaboration between the child and a benevolent, extraordinarily competent teacher, who gently guides the child’s energy and shapes the child’s raw ideas in ways that serve the child’s and society’s long-term good. To the advocate of Self-Directed Education it emerges out of children’s natural drives to understand themselves and the world around them and to use whatever resources are available in their environment, including knowledgeable and skilled others, to achieve that end.

One thought on “Differences Between Self-Directed and Progressive Education (2)”

  1. Tuesday, 03 November 2020 10:05

    (5)进步教育网络(2009年成立的一个非盈利组织,旨在复兴进步教育)的网站宣称:“教育必须增强学生的声音 能力 良知和才智 一创造一个更公正和可持续的世界;(b)鼓励学生积极参与他们的学习、社区和世界;(c)照顾学生的发展需要,关注他们的社交、情感、智力、认知、文化和身体发展;(d)尊重和培养学生天生的求知欲和求知欲,培养内在的动力和发现激情和目标;(e)来自不同群体的兴趣、经历、目标和需求,培养移情、沟通和跨差异协作;(f)培养学生、教育者、家长/监护人和社区之间的尊重合作和关键关系。”

     

    (6)今天进步教育的主要倡导者之一Alfie kohn指出(此处),学校的进步程度可以从以下几个方面来衡量:(a)关注孩子的全面发展,而不仅仅是学术;(b)社区;(c)协作;(d)社会正义;(e)培养内在动力;(f)深刻理解;(g)主动学习;(h)认真对待孩子。 

     

    (7)进步的教育者倾向于把教育看作是学生和老师之间的合作。大量的主动性来自学生,但教师有责任以富有成效的方式引导这种主动性。孩子的内在兴趣起着很大的作用,但是老师“培养”甚至“激发”孩子的这些兴趣。游戏被理解为学习过程的一部分,但教师以设计的方式来指导和解释游戏,以确保特定的教育目的。

     

     自主教育

     

    (8)提倡自我学习的人,像提倡进步教育的人一样,强调教育不仅仅是关于学术的学习。教育的指导网站解释教育作为一个人所学的所有事物的总和,使他能过上令人满意和有意义的生活。这将包括对自己的了解,指导自己活动的技能,如何和他人相处的技能,和对自己周围世界足够的了解,足够有效的驾驭这个世界,大多数进步的教育者都会同意这种教育的解释。 

     

    (9)进步教育和自我指导教育的不同之处在于:如何理解全人教育。对进步教育者来说,它来自于孩子和一位仁慈的,有能力的老师之间的合作,这位老师温柔的引导孩子的潜能,塑造孩子的原始想法,以服务于孩子和社会的长期利益。对于自我指导教育者来说,它来自于孩子们理解自身和周围环境的自然动力,以及利用环境中任何可用资源,包括知识渊博的有技能的其他人,来达到目的。

     

    注:第五段由付晓晗同学翻译;第六段由肖安静同学翻译;第七、八段由马思钰同学翻译;第九段由王蕊晴同学翻译。指导:李燕老师。

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☆☆☆☆☆  急召:

翻译、摄影爱好者,无论段位。

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☆☆☆ 共建者:

对非主流教育有兴趣做研究的年青人;

对自主学习的实践有经验的大、小朋友;

愿意和大家分享的自己知识和见解的;

希望参与共学社会建设的搞事情的人。