作者:[美] 彼得·格雷

中文题目:自主教育和激进教育之间的区别

Differences Between Self-Directed and Progressive Education
(Section 1)

(1) As regular readers of this blog know, I’m an advocate for Self-Directed Education. My research and that of others convinces me that Self-Directed Education works, is eminently practical, and is far less trouble to everyone than the coercive educational system that we all consider “standard.” Self-Directed Education, with capital letters, is the term that is increasingly being used for the educational practice of people who call themselves “unschoolers” or who attend schools or learning centers specifically designed to support self-direction, with no imposed curriculum, such as Sudbury model democratic schools, Agile Learning Centers, and some schools that call themselves “free schools” (Gray, 2017).

(2) I’ve found that when I speak or write about Self-Directed Education some people mistakenly believe that I’m speaking or writing about progressive education. Progressive education has many of the same goals as Self-Directed Education, and its advocates use much of the same language, but the foundational philosophy is quite different and the methodology is very different. In what follows I’ll review the basic tenets of progressive education, then review those of Self-Directed Education, and, finally, explain why I think the latter, not the former, will become the standard mode of education in the not-too-distant future.

Progressive Education

(3) Progressive education is the term generally applied to an educational reform movement that began in the late 19th century, around the same time that schooling became compulsory in most U.S. states, and has waxed and waned at least twice since then. The period from about 1890 to about 1940 saw a flowering of progressive ideas in education, the birth of many progressive private schools, and some concerted efforts to bring progressive ideas into mainstream public schools. The leading philosopher of progressive education at that time, at least in the United States, was John Dewey. Other early progressive thinkers in education included Rudolf Steiner (1869-1925) and Maria Montessori (1870-1952), whose traditions live on, respectively, in Waldorf and Montessori schools. Progressive ideas in education tended to fade with World War II and its aftermath, tended to bloom again in the 1960’s and ‘70’s, and have generally been declining ever since about 1980. There is, however, some recent revival of progressive education in schools that emphasize project-based learning.

(4) Progressive educators typically emphasize learning by doing, contextual learning relevant to students’ real life experiences, critical thinking, deep understanding rather than rote memory, group work and collaboration rather than competition, evaluation based on products rather than tests, and the fostering of social responsibility, democratic attitudes, and concern for social justice. They commonly talk about “educating the whole person” and about “student focused” as opposed to simply subject-focused education. Progressive teachers are expected to get to know all of their students as individuals and bring out the best in each of them.

One thought on “Differences Between Self-Directed and Progressive Education (1)”

  1. Tuesday, 03 November 2020 04:52

    (1)  经常阅读这个博客的人都知道,我是一个自主学习的倡导者。我的研究和其他人的研究让我相信,自主学习是有效的,是切实可行的,而且与我们都认为是"标准"的强制教育系统相比,对每个人来说都是少得多的麻烦。自主学习,用大写字母,是这个词越来越多的用于那些自称"非学校者"的人的实践教育,或者那些参加专门为支持自主学习而设计的学校或学习中心,没有强加课程的人。如萨德伯里模型民主的学校,灵活的学习中心,和一些自称"免费学校"的学校。

     

    (2)  我发现当我谈及或写到自主学习的时候,有些人误以为我说的是进步教育。进步教育与自主学习有许多相同的目标,他们的拥护者们也有着许多相同的用语,但其基本哲学观和方法论完全不同。接下来,我将回顾进步教育的基本原则,然后再回顾自主学习的基本原则,最后解释为什么我认为后者会比前者更有望成为将来教育的标准模式。

     

    (3) 激进教育描述的是开始于19世纪末的教育改革运动,几乎与此同时,美国各州开始了义务教育并在此后教育领域至少起伏了两次。1890年-1940年之间见证了激进思想在教育领域中的百花齐放,在这期间建立了许多私立学校,一些激进思想被带进了主流学校,美国约翰·杜威是当时激进主义主要的哲学教,教育领域中的其他早起思想家包括鲁道夫·斯坦纳、玛丽亚·蒙台梭利,他们的传统在华尔道夫学校和蒙台梭利学校得以延续。教育领域的思想激进思想随着第二次世界大战及其余波逐渐消失,又在60年代和70年代趋于繁荣,在1980年开始逐渐衰落。然而,最近在学校中出现了以项目为基础的激进教育的复兴。

     

    (4) 进步教育学家往往重视实践学习,重视与学生真实生活经历相关的有语境学习与批判性思考,重视深度理解而不是机械性记忆,重视小组合作而不是竞争,以评估成果取代测试成绩,培养学生的社会责任感、民主态度及对社会公正的关注。进步教育家反对以单一学科为中心的教育,提出“全人教育”与,“学生导向型教育”。进步教师应将每位学生看作独立的个体,做到个性化育人。

     

    注:第一段由李渝儒同学翻译;第二段由张慧敏同学翻译;第三段由王雯宇同学翻译;第四段由刘琦同学翻译。指导:李燕老师。

召集中…

─────────────────────────

☆☆☆☆☆  急召:

翻译、摄影爱好者,无论段位。

─────────────────────────

☆☆☆ 共建者:

对非主流教育有兴趣做研究的年青人;

对自主学习的实践有经验的大、小朋友;

愿意和大家分享的自己知识和见解的;

希望参与共学社会建设的搞事情的人。